Người Hàn Quốc đón Tết Trung thu như thế nào ?

Người Hàn Quốc đón Tết trung thu như thế nào ?

Cũng giống như Việt Nam, Trung Quốc và Nhật Bản, người Hàn Quốc cũng ăn tết trung thu. Tết trung thu trong tiếng Hàn là 추석 (Chuseok) và được coi là một ngày lễ lớn và quan trọng của người Hàn Quốc, chỉ sau tết nguyên đán. Lễ Chuseok tại Hàn Quốc không chỉ dành cho trẻ em mà đây là ngày lễ tạ ơn của toàn thể người dân.

Có thể bạn quan tâm: Hò hẹn phong cách Hàn Quốc

1. Nguồn gốc ngày Chuseok 

Theo các nhà sử học của Hàn Quốc, tết Trung thu là tết liên quan đến mặt trăng, tượng trưng cho mùa màng bội thu nên họ lấy ngày Rằm tháng Tám làm ngày Tết.

Theo sách “Tam Quốc sử ký”, Tết Trung thu bắt nguồn cuộc thi dệt sợi gai ở triều đại vua thứ ba của nước Tân La (Hàn Quốc ngày nay). Đó là vào năm 32 sau Công Nguyên, sau khi lên ngôi được 9 năm, vua Lý Nho chia phụ nữ trong kinh thành làm hai phe, do hai vương nữ chỉ huy thi dệt sợi gai từ ngày 16/7 – 15/8, sau đó xem kết quả bên nào làm được nhiều hơn sẽ thắng. Bên thua cuộc phải mời cỗ rượu bên thắng cuộc, sau đó mọi người cùng múa hát và chơi các trò chơi… phong tục này vẫn còn. Ở Tế Châu, vào ngày Rằm tháng Tám còn có tục trai gái tụ họp ca hát, nhảy múa và chơi trò kéo co…

2. Ý nghĩa ngày lễ Chuseok 

Ban đầu, ngày lễ này còn mang ý nghĩa hội mùa. Vào ngày này, người Hàn sử dụng các sản phẩm mới gặt hái được như thịt, cá, rau, hoa quả, bánh gạo… để chế biến các món ăn thành kính dâng lên tổ tiên.

Càng về sau này, ngày lễ trung thu tại Hàn Quốc lại mang nhiều ý nghĩa hơn. Nó không chỉ là lễ hội thu hoạch mà còn là ngày lễ tưởng nhớ những người đã khuất, là ngày sum họp đoàn tụ gia đình. Ngày nay, Chuseok được coi là dịp lễ tạ ơn ở Hàn Quốc. Đây là ngày mà mọi người bày tỏ lòng biết ơn, kính trọng với tổ tiên.

Trung thu của người Hàn Quốc gần giống như lễ Tạ Ơn của phương Tây. Trong ngày này mọi người được nghỉ dài ngày (thông thường là 3 ngày). Những người làm ăn, sinh sống ở xa cũng nhân dịp này trở về thăm quê hương.

3. Bánh trung thu của người Hàn Quốc 

Mỗi quốc gia đều có một loại bánh với nguyên liệu, cách làm và hình thức khác nhau… nhưng đều có điểm chung là chiếc bánh là biểu tượng cho một cuộc sống chan hoà, tốt đẹp trong tương lai.

Bánh trung thu của người Hàn Quốc có tên là Songpyeon, nghĩa là bánh trăng khuyết. Bánh được làm từ bột gạo, hình bán nguyệt với có nhiều hương vị khác nhau như đậu đỏ, đậu nành, vừng… và hấp với lá thông tươi. Màu sắc của bánh đều được làm từ màu thiên nhiên của các loại rau, củ, quả tươi nên trông rất đẹp và thơm ngon.

Tham khảo: Văn hóa ẩm thực Hàn Quốc

Nếu như người Việt Nam, Trung Quốc xem trăng tròn là biểu trưng cho sự hạnh phúc viên mãn thì người Hàn Quốc lại xem trăng khuyết mới là hình ảnh lý tưởng. Bởi “trăng khuyết rồi sẽ tròn” như là sự sinh sôi, nảy nở, ước nguyện tròn đầy của người Hàn Quốc. Và đó là lý do tại sao những chiếc bánh songpyeon được nặn theo hình bán nguyệt.

duhochanquochalo-songpyeon

Vào đêm rằm trung thu, cả gia đình sẽ tụ họp lại với nhau để làm bánh songpyeon. Người Hàn có câu truyền tụng rằng, thiếu nữ nào làm bánh songpyeon vừa ngon lại vừa đẹp sẽ gặp được ý trung nhân như ý, phụ nữ có gia đình sẽ sinh được con gái ngoan ngoãn, xinh xắn như vầng trăng. Chính vì thế mà phụ nữ Hàn Quốc dành rất nhiều tình cảm, tâm trí cho việc làm bánh Songpyeon.

4. Nghi lễ thờ cúng ngày Chuseok 

Ngày Chuseok chính là ngày mà người Hàn Quốc tưởng nhớ đến tổ tiên và những người đã khuất. Vì thế, nghi lễ thờ cúng rất quan trọng trong ngày này. Vào sáng sớm, các gia đình thường cùng nhau đi thăm mộ tổ tiên, dọn dẹp, nhổ cỏ xung quanh mộ và bày mâm lễ để tỏ lòng tưởng nhớ thành kính tới người đã khuất. Nó khá giống với tết thanh minh tại Việt Nam.

Tiếp sau đó, mọi người trở về nhà và tiếp tục cử hành nghi lễ trên bàn thờ tổ tiên. Việc chuẩn bị, sắp xếp bàn thờ và chủ trì nghi lễ thường do con trai trưởng đảm nhiệm. Mâm lễ cúng trong ngày Chuseok được chuẩn bị rất công phu. Có hẳn quy tắc cho việc sắp xếp thứ tự các đồ cúng lễ.

duhochanquochalo-nghi-le-tho-cung

Mâm lễ được chia thành 5 hàng lần lượt từ trên xuống dưới theo thứ tự như sau:

  • Hàng trên cùng bày các loại bánh songpyon, cơm, canh, rươu,… thìa, đũa được xếp giữa các khay bánh songpyon với lưu ý là thìa phải được úp xuống để tỏ lòng thành kính với tổ tiên còn khi ăn thì xếp thìa ngửa lên.
  • Hàng thứ hai bày canh thịt bò, canh rau và cá hấp…. Cá phải được đặt về phía đông, thịt xếp về phía tây.
  • Hàng thứ ba có cặp nến bày hai bê, ở giữa vày thịt, súp và cá.
  • Hàng thứ tư bày một vài đĩa kẹo, vài lát cá khô, bát canh nấu từ giá đỗ hoặc rong biển.
  • Hàng thứ năm bày một vài loại trái cây và kẹo. Trái cây được xếp theo nguyên tắc: hoa quả màu đỏ (tượng trưng cho sự may mắn) thì xếp về hướng đông, hoa quả màu trắng (tượng trưng cho sự khởi đầu) xếp sang hướng tây và được đặt trên các đĩa có chân cao, ngay ngắ, ở gần mép bàn. Với quả táo hay quả lê phải được cắt bỏ bớt phần đầu. Các loại hoa quả và kẹo xếp theo thứ tự từ phải sang trái và trái cây luôn được bày với số lẻ.

Ngoài ra còn có một số nguyên tắc khác rất cầu kì, thể hiện sự tỉ mẩn, chỉn chu và tấm lòng thành của những người con, người cháu đối với các bậc tổ tiên. Ví dụ như: bàn lễ cúng luôn được đặt quay về hướng bắc, nơi được coi là gần với linh hồn của những người đã khuất. Các món ăn ngon hơn sẽ được đặp ở bên phải của người đã khuất vì cho rằng tay phải là tay thuận, tay cầm đũa nên các món ăn ngon được đặt thuận hơn…

Sau khi cúng tổ tiên xong, các thành viên trong gia đình thường tụ họp quây quần, cùng nhau thưởng thức các đồ đã được cúng lễ và uống rượu truyền thống của người Hàn Quốc có tên là rượu Baekju.

5. Các hoạt động trong ngày Chuseok 

Lễ hội Chuseok được diễn ra trong nhiều ngày, từ những đêm trước ngày rằm tháng tám và kết thúc sau ngày 15/8 âm lịch. Trong suốt những ngày lễ hội, rất nhiều các hoạt động văn hóa truyền thống để kỷ niệm ngày lễ lớn.

  • Trò chơi rùa

duhochanquochalo-tro-choi-rua

Trò chơi rùa nghĩa là những người dân Hàn Quốc tại các vùng nông thôn mặc trang phục cải trang thành bò hay rùa rồi đi khắp làng, vừa đi vừa hát bài Nongak. Hai người đàn ông trên hai tay và từ hai đầu gối trở lên được bọc một miếng vỏ lớn như mai rùa làm bằng rơm rạ. Hai con rùa này được một nhóm người đàn ông khác dắt từ nhà này sang nhà kia. Đến mỗi nhà, người lái rùa lại nói với chủ nhà cho rùa chút gì để ăn và chủ nhà mang ra bánh, thức ăn và hoa quả. Sau đó người lái rùa lại nói với con rùa: thưa ông rùa, ông sẽ ăn một bữa no nê và nhảy múa nhé. Con rùa sẽ đứng dậy và nhảy múa một lúc rồi sang nhà khác và lặp lại như thế. Trò chơi này xuất phát từ niềm tin rằng rùa là linh vật biểu trưng cho tuổi thọ, sự may mắn, đồng thời xua đuổi những linh hồn xấu xa.

  • Điệu nhảy vòng tròn Hàn Quốc (Ganggangsullae)

Vào dịp tết Chuseok, điệu múa ganggangsullae luôn được tổ chức ở khắp các địa phương tại Hàn Quốc. Vào buổi tối trung thu, những phụ nữ mặc những bộ Hanbok đẹp nhất rồi tụ họp lại giữa sân làng, nắm tay nhau tạo thành vòng tròn như trăng rằm, vừa hát vừa nhảy múa. Trò chơi ganggangsulae trong ngày rằm là sự thăng hoa, giao thoa giữa con người và thiên nhiên.

duhochanquochalo-ganggang

Có một câu chuyện liên quan đến nguồn gốc của điệu múa này, đó là vào khoảng hơn ba thế kỷ trước, có vị đô đốc hải quân tên là Lee Sun Shin và binh lính của ông đã đánh nhau với quân đội Nhật. Những người phụ nữ ở gần nơi chiến sự đã tụ tập nhau lại thành từng nhóm đứng trên những ngọn đồi dọc bờ biển, vừa hát gangangsulle, vừa nhảy múa vòng tròn quanh đống lửa để bọn Nhật tưởng rằng vùng bờ biển vẫn bình yên và mục tiêu của chúng vẫn được bảo vệ tốt. Do đó, quân Nhật không phòng bị gì khi bị quân của Lee Sun Shin đánh bất ngờ.

  • Trò chơi đấu vật Hàn Quốc (Ssireum)

duhochanquochalo-dau-vat

Đấu vật là trò chơi không thể thiếu dành cho các chàng trai thể hiện sức mạnh của mình trong dịp lễ Chuseok. Đây là một môn võ truyền thống của người Hàn Quốc. Cuộc đấu sẽ được tổ chức trên một bãi cỏ hoặc bãi cát rộng, theo hình thức loại trực tiếp, người chiến thắng được tôn vinh là jangsa (tráng sĩ) và được nhận nhiều giải thưởng của dân làng như vải vóc, gạo… Ngày nay, trò chơi này vẫn được duy trì tại nhiều làng quê của Hàn Quốc.

Tết trung thu có ý nghĩa vô cùng lớn đối với người dân Hàn Quốc, nó là ngày đoàn tụ, sum vầy của các gia đình là dịp để mọi người dân tỏ lòng thành kính, hướng về nguồn cội. Đây là một nét văn hóa đẹp mà người Hàn Quốc vẫn còn lưu truyền tới tận ngày nay, giữ vị trí quan trọng trong đời sống tinh thần của người dân xứ sở Kim Chi.

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56 thoughts on “Người Hàn Quốc đón Tết Trung thu như thế nào ?

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